I wouldn't recommend it. The brake drums are presumably cast iron, which would be brittle. Acting as a brake drum, the drum is put into uniform tension
all around when the brake is applied. When the drum is set down upon the wheel dolly, a single point of the drum is put in compression
, which it was not built for. It is likely to crack or even shatter.
When the dolly is used on a "tired" wheel, the weight
of the trailer is transferred directly to the axle
shaft, and the drum takes none of the load.
If you need to remove the tires
and wheels for garage door clearance, I suggest you devise some sort of a dolly that can pick up the trailer weight
directly on the trailer frame. (Something like a pair of large wheeled garage jacks, one on each side.) That would also mean you would need a solid (concrete) level garage apron to allow the wheel-less trailer to be pushed into the garage safely.
If you can devise one, you could leave the trailer on the jacks, taking the entire load off of the axle
for the winter, and also prevent "flatting" the tires, as they also would not be under any load at all.