I was able to take off the residue with some coarse #60 sandpaper. Hand sanding is better than power sanding. The reason for that is heat from a fast spinning sander softens the glue and that is what makes it gum up the sand paper...which is exactly what happened to you.
I bought some of the circular random orbital sand paper disc in 60 grit. The disc are nice and strong which is why I used them instead of sheets of sandpaper. Just fold in half and they are easy to grip with your hands. Put on some tunes and do the zen time thing, it is a boring, dirty job and you need that music to help make it more pleasant.
I did a section of the ceiling each evening before I quit for the day. That way I was ready for an immediate cool shower afterwards to get the fibers from the shell off of me. I had to break the job up into sections because my neck and shoulders get painful from long overhead work sessions.
I know it is very tempting to power tool through this task but hand sanding with coarse paper really does work the best. It is easier than you think