I agree that Petit Jean SP is worth some extra time, if you have time. The waterfall might not have much flow in November, not sure, but the views from the overlooks are great, the trails are nice (don't miss the Bear Cave Trail), and camping under the pines is pleasant. Here's a picture of my granddaughters along this trail....
But if you don't want to veer off the main route that far (the winding 2-lanes in and out will add probably 3/4 hour to your travel time), you could stay at Lake Catherine SP just off I-40 near Russellville. Or if it's too early to stop there, you might camp at Springhill COE CG, Barling AR (near Van Buren); this is the site of an annual egg rally
in Septembers, it's only about 10 minutes south of the highway, and they have a couple of non-reservable campsites in addition to the many reservable ones.
Red Rock Canyon SP near Hinton OK is a pretty neat place, you're down in the canyon with red walls around you. If you're farther along on your route, though, there are supposed to be 5 free campsites at Elk City Lake Park, exit 38 then 1 mile south. Also I've stayed at the city park in Sayre OK, $12 self-pay with water and electric hookups and a dump station, maybe a half mile N of I-40 and a couple of blocks west.
Palo Duro certainly is a nice destination, but it is some distance off your route so it depends on your available time.